Autumn comes to Old Town © Simon Zenger/Alamy
The medieval center of Bern, Switzerland"s capital, looks much as it did when most of these buildings were first constructed between the 12th and the 15th centuries. What"s now called Old Town was founded in 1191 on a long, narrow peninsula surrounded on three sides by the Aare River. As Bern grew over the centuries, it erected defensive walls and moats only to tear them down again with each successive wave of expansion. In their place are now broad public spaces for outdoor cafes and markets, like the Zibelemärit (Onion Market), an annual fall tradition.